What is Khilafat Movement?
Khilafat movement – खिलाफत आंदोलन refers to the force that began in India in the 20th century beginning owing to the Muslim fears for Islam integrity. These fears were triggered by 1911 Italian and 1912-13 Balkan attacks that were on Turkey and the sultan was also the caliph, was the worldwide Muslim community religious head that faced defeats in World War I.
In 1920 August, the Treaty of Sevres intensified. It detached not only the non-Turkish regions but also gave few to Greece and other non-muslim powers. Thus, a campaign to defend the caliph was founded, led in India as Khilafat movement in India by the Shaukat and Muhammad Ali and by Abul Kalam Azad.
The leader of the Khilafat movement joined the forces with the noncooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi fighting for Indian freedom. Thus the Khilafat movement and the non-cooperation movement was promising nonviolence in return as a Khilafat movement support. The latter movement in 1920 was marred by the exodus, the Hijarat, from India to Afghanistan and they were around 18,000 Muslim peasants, who considered India to be an apostate land.
Gandhi’s suspension of this movement and in March 1922 his arrest weakened still further the Khilafat movement. It was further undermined in 1922 and deposed in the same year the Turkish sultan; that collapsed finally when he abolished in 1924 the caliphate altogether.
Who started the Khilafat movement?
The Khilafat movement was between 1919 to 1924. This was a pan-Islamic major movement started against the British power. It was intended to save the Ottoman Empire and thus it also extended to India. During the WWI, Turkey helped Germany to fight the British. Turkish was the Islamic government founder and also the Muslim unity central power. The Turkish emperor was known as Khalifa and he was the religious and political leader for the Muslims in the world. The British and French army, in 1918 occupied the Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire collapsed. The Muslim leaders started Khilafat movement protesting the allied act aiming to save the Ottoman. The Muslims joined hands and protesting in large against the British government.
The Khilafat Movement under the leadership of Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali expanded to South Asia. The movement covered North India soon. In India, this movement also became an Indian independence movement. Khilafat leaders agreed to give full support to Gandhiji to fight against the British. With the subdivision of the Muslim leaders, the movement became weak and saw an end in March 1924.